Mount Rinjani (Gunung Rinjani) is surely an active volcano plus a park in Lombok and something in the largest mountains in Indonesia. With a clear day you can see breathtaking views from the summit. The trek for the summit normally takes around three days and highlights range from the crater lake Segara Anak, as well as the natural hot springs there.
At 3,726 m, Rinjani will be the second highest volcano in Indonesia, second only to Mount Kerinci on Sumatra, plus it dominates the landscape in the relatively small island of Lombok.
Within its huge 50 km² caldera sits the crater lake Segara Anak (Child from the Sea). Eruptions from the caldera have formed a new small cone called appropriately enough, Gunung Barujari (New-finger Mountain).
The mountain and its satellites form the Mount Rinjani Park officially Taman Nasional Gunung Rinjani with 41,000 hectares from the park boundaries and a further 66,000 hectares of protected forest outside.
In 2008, the Indonesian government proposed to UNESCO that Mount Rinjani be among our planet's official geoparks. If the was approved by UNESCO, Mount Rinjani would end up being the first such geological park in Indonesia.
It is a very active volcano. The oldest recorded historical eruption is at 1847. Ahead of until this was a very remote region indeed, hence the deficiency of records. However, approximately in 1257 the volcano erupted so violently that its shape changed as to what it appears as if today and the event is believed to have brought about the oncoming of the tiny Ice Age. There was a spate of activity from 1994 to 1995 which resulted in the further development of the crater cone Gunung Baru, since renamed Gunung Barujari (New-finger Mountain).
On 27 April 2009 Gunung Barujari became active again with this activity continuing right through to May 2009. The summit ascent routes were closed at that time because eruptions intensified with plumes of smoke and ash as high as 8,000 m. A Volcanic Explosivity Index (VEI):2 rating was issued for that activity between May and December 2009. The ascent routes re-opened on September 14th 2009 but hiking routes on to the crater lake remained as deemed unsafe and remained closed.
In February 2010 observers with the Gunung Rinjani Observation Post detected a smoke plume that rose 100 m through the volcano. The activity during the early 2010 is centred about Gunung Barujari. On May 1st 2010 a column of smoke was again observed rising from Rinjani issuing eruptions 1,300-1,600 metres tall with thick brown color and powerful pressure. On May 5th 2010 a potential ash plume rose for an altitude of 5.5 km (18,000 ft) and drifted 150 km NW. Accordingly the midst of Volcanology and Geological Hazard Mitigation advised that intermittent activity could produce ash plumes to at least one,500 m (5,000 ft) over the caldera. Considering this The Volcanic Explosivity Index Alert Level grew up to 2 using a recommendation there be no activity within a radius of 4 km in the eruption at Gunung Barujari.
Rinjani erupted three further times on 23 May 2010 with activity continuing until 24 May 2010. In line with the volcano's official monitoring agency, ash from Mount Barujari was reported as rising around 2 km in to the atmosphere and damaged crops. Lava flowed in the caldera lake, pushing its temperature up from 21°C to 35°C, while smoke spread 12 km. The volcano failed to directly threaten villagers during any of the eruptive activity noisy . 2010 however use of some sections of the mountain was officially closed or restricted at sometimes.
After these events, another lot of major activity has happened in November 2015. The November 2015 eruptions have forced closure of Ngurah Rai airport in Bali, and disrupted international flights into and out of Bali.
The reduced and mid levels of the mountain are very heavily forested. Higher than the tree line although slopes are barren and rugged scree slopes and volcanic rock. The views in the crater lake may be breath-taking through the caldera rim, as they are the sunrise. From your absolute peak you can observe Bali for the west and Sumbawa towards the east.
The bottom and middle elevation slopes are densely forested with typical tropical species. Fig trees are specifically apparent. Casuarina forest (cemara) starts higher up and eventually these fall down for an alpine flora higher than the treeline.
Lombok is east in the Wallacean Line and several Australian bird species therefore are apparent. These include plenty of sulphur crested cockatoos and green hanging parrots. Bird life is generally not easy to watch here though as a result of density of the forest.
The familiar long-tailed grey macaque (the Bali temple monkey) is typical even the crater rim. The rare ebony leaf monkey inhabit these forests. Rusa deer and muntjacs will be more often heard than seen.
Rinjani is most beneficial climbed in the April-November dry season. You are able to climb in the rainy season too but treks will often be cancelled at short notice if your rain is heavy.
It gets abnormally cold around the mountain above 2,000 m and nears freezing with the summit. Warm clothes are mandatory.
Most visitors arrive using the village of Senaru (600 m), around the northern side with the mountain and therefore closer to the main resort parts of free airline coast including Senggigi. One other possible feeder point is Sembalun Lawang (1,150 m), around the eastern side, which can be better the summit. Both villages are accessed from the main north coast road. Rinjani Trek